Types of Research – A Complete Guide

What is research?

Research is a careful reflection of study regarding a specific matter or problem by using scientific approaches. Research is conducted with the aim to:
● Understand the present customer
● Identify new customers
● Set realistic goals
● Develop fruitful marketing strategies
● Figure out and address business challenges
● Launching a business expansion plan
● Look for new business opportunities and identify them

Qualities of research

● For capturing accurate data, good research adopts a specific systematic approach. As a researcher, you have to practice ethics while making observations and sketching conclusions.
● In research, the analysis segment is based on logical inference and thinking. Both inductive and conductive methods are involved in logical reasoning.
● Only the real observation shows the actual data and knowledge.
● There is a detailed analysis of all the credible data collected so that there are no deviations attached with it.
● It gives you a track to generate new questions. The data that is already present assists you in creating more research opportunities.
● There is not any uncertainty and vagueness left in inference because the research uses all the available data.
● Authority and reliability are the most crucial aspects of research. All the information should be exact and precise.

Types of research

Research is an important tool for scientific development. As a researcher, the research enables you to prove or refute your hypothesis based on the clarity of all the parameters and assumptions.

Knowing different types of research reports and comprehending each of them will allow you to write your project perfectly. Furthermore, it also communicates your outcomes to other researchers.

Different types of research are categorized according to the depth of study, objectives, and other elements. It is crucial to know that a research project is not merely limited to only one type of research, but it likely uses various.

There are thirteen different qualitative types of research methods. These are:
▪ Exploratory research
▪ Descriptive research
▪ Explanatory research
▪ Correlational research
▪ Theoretical research
▪ Applied research
▪ Qualitative research
▪ Quantitative research.
▪ Experimental research
▪ Non-experimental research
▪ Quasi-experimental research
▪ Inductive research
▪ Deductive research

Exploratory research

As a researcher, you have to conduct an exploratory approach for exploring a group of questions. However, the analytics and answers may not give a conclusion to the problem. This exploratory approach lays the base for analysis and data collection.

Purpose of exploratory research

The main purpose of conducting this research approach is to probe a particular phenomenon. This research technique tends to learn much about the relation between two variables. However, the exact category of the dependent variable may not be comprehended before the experiment starts.

Data collection in exploratory research

The nature of data collected for this type of research is almost the same as an experimental study. Exploratory research is distinct; you have to organize the data in a systematic way that has not been written before. 

Descriptive research

A descriptive study demonstrates the practices of a sample population. For conducting the study, only one component is needed. Here are the three basic purposes of descriptive study.
● Describing
● Explaining
● Validating

Explanatory research

It is also called causal research. It is organized to examine the impact of all the special changes in the existing custom strategies. Experimenting is one of the most common examples of this approach.
Well-conducted research begins by questioning the right queries and choosing a standard procedure to explore the problem. After collecting answers to your queries, you can examine findings to extract logical conclusions.

Correlational research

The primary purpose of correlational research is to determine the relationship between two variables or sometimes more. It focuses on checking whether variables change, to what extent the other elements of the observed system change.

Theoretical research

Theoretical research is also known as pure research. This is one of the types of research that focuses on producing knowledge. In theoretical research, data collection is used to generate new ideas and concepts for a finer understanding of a specific field.
The outcomes of theoretical research lead towards the formulation of theories. These results are based on paper analysis, Mathematical formulae development, and consideration of upper-level researchers.

Applied research

The basic goal of conducting applied research is to find the techniques that can be utilized to consider a specific research query. This type of research focuses on theory for generating practical knowledge. To add more, scientific knowledge is very common in STEM fields like medicine, computer science, and engineering.
Applied research is further divided into two types.
● Scientific applied research
● Technological applied research

Qualitative research

Qualitative approaches are mostly used in the field of social sciences for collecting, comparing, and explaining information. It is also used for discourse analysis, surveys, interviews, etc.
For using the statistical method for authenticating their outcomes, the collected observation must be found numerically. Qualitative research is subjective because not all the information and data can be fully accessed and controlled. 

Quantitative research

The quantitative research study uses statistical, mathematical, and computer-related techniques for quantitative data collection. This enables the outcomes to be calculated over time.

Experimental research

Experimental research firmly attaches to a specific scientific research design. The researchers use a set of variables to conduct this scientific approach. It contains:
● Hypothesis
● Manipulated variable
● Measured variable
The most important thing about this research type is that it is conducted in a controlled environment. When the researcher collects data, his hypothesis can either be supported or rejected. This research method is also known as the deductive research approach.

Purpose of experimental research method

This research approach focuses on determining the exact linkage between two variables – independent variable and dependent variable.

Data collection in experimental research

The data collected for the experimental research approach must be measurable and quantified. Data collected could be mass, sound intensity, density, area, velocity, temperature, humidity, etc. Thus, you have to observe the entity qualitatively.

Non-experimental research

This research approach shortfalls the manipulation of an independent element. In this type of research, the researcher does not control and alter the independent subject or variable. Instead, he depends on observation, explanation, and interaction for concluding the subject.
Non-experimental research does not interpret a true ripple effect relationship. Moreover, it has great external validity i.e. it can be generic to a larger mass.

Quasi-experimental research

This research type is not entirely experimental because it does not control multiple variables of the phenomenon under investigation. In this matter, we cannot select the focus group and study.

Inductive research

We have to conduct inductive research where there is not any possibility of existing literature on the topic. Three stages are involved in this type of research approach.
● Observation
● Observe a pattern
● Develop a theory

Limitation of inductive research

The conclusion drawn by using this research approach can never be proved.

Deductive research

The researchers usually associate this research approach with scientific investigation. In this research method, the researcher goes through all the existing theories and then examines the hypothesis drawn from those theories.

Benefits of deductive research

The deductive approach has the following advantages:
● Interprets the relationship between variables and ideas.
● Quantitatively evaluate the concepts.
● Infer the research results to a great extent

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